Lycopin und seine Bedeutung
Lycopin zählt zu den stärksten und wirkunsgvollsten Antioxidantien überhaupt und gilt damit als der Radikalfänger, d.h. es kann bestimmte aggressive Moleküle im menschlichen Körper unschädlich machen. Studien haben gezeigt, dass Lycopin die Wahrscheinlichkeit für bestimmte Krebsarten (zum Beispiel Prostata- und Lungenkrebs) signifikant reduzieren kann.
Desweiteren senkt Lycopin das Risiko der Entstehung von Arteriosklerose und der Alzheimerschen Krankheit. Auch wird in medizinischen Fachkreisen eine gute Wirkung bei rheumatischen Beschwerden diskutiert.
Außerdem wird der UV-Schutz der Haut durch Einlagerung von Lycopin in die Hautschichten verbessert. Lycopin ist daher auch ein natürlicher Sonnenschutz.
Zusammenfassend hat Lycopin die folgende Wirkung:
- Schützt vor vielen Krebsarten
- Schützt vor Freien Radikalen
- Schützt vor UV-Strahlen
- Schützt vor Herzerkrankungen
- Verlangsamt Alterungsprozesse
- Schützt die Prostata
- Senkt zu hohen Cholesterinspiegel
Weitere Informationen zu Lycopin finden Sie unter: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lycopin
Überblick: Studien und Untersuchungen hinsichtlich gesundheitserhaltender Wirkungen von Lycopin in Bezug auf Herzerkrankungen und Krebs
- Die Doktoren Howard Sesso und Michael Gaziano der Harvard Medical School in den USA haben 39,876 Frauen untersucht, die ursprünglich an keinerlei Herzkrankheiten litten. Deren Daten wurden abgestimmt in Hinblick auf Alter, Rauchgewohnheiten und Cholesterin-Werte. Diejenigen Frauen mit dem höchsten Lycopin-Anteil in ihren Blutwerten hatten lediglich das halbe Risiko am Herzen zu erkranken, als diejenigen mit niedrigem Lycopin-Niveau.
- Fritz Böhm, Humboldt Universität, Berlin, und George Truscott, Universität Keele, England, haben durch zelluläre und chemische Experimente als Erste entdeckt, dass es positive Synergien gibt, wenn man Lycopin mit anderen Antioxidantien wie Vitamin C und E kombiniert. Dies konnte Dr. Lasheras, Medizinische Fakultät Oviedo, Spanien, bestätigen, der sich mit den Zusammenhängen zwischen oxidativem Stress, Krebs und Herzkrankheiten beschäftigte. Eine Untersuchung mit 100 Frauen (Nichtraucherinnen) ergab, dass diejenigen mit dem niedrigsten Risiko, an Herzkrankheiten und Krebs zu erkranken, hohe Lycopin- und Vitamin E-Werte aufwiesen. Die Forscher sind sich einig: bestmöglichen Schutz vor diesen Erkrankungen bietet die Kombination von ausreichend ausgewogene Mengen an Lycopin und Vitamin E.
- Prof. Hulton aus Schweden und Dr. Levy in Israel haben festgestellt, dass ein erhöhter Lycopin-Spiegel bei Frauen nach den Wechseljahren ein reduziertes Risiko einer Brustkrebserkrankung nach sich zieht. Dr. Levy glaubt, dass Lycopin dann einen Schutz vor erhöhtem Krebsrisiko bieten kann, wenn dieses durch Östrogenetherapie oder andere Hormone hervorgerufen wird. In einer kürzlich durchgeführten Untersuchung in der Schweiz wurde festgestellt, dass vor allem Lycopin und Vitamin C die Brustkrebsrate bei Frauen senken kann.
- Vor über 13 Jahren entdeckten Forscher der Universität Illinois, USA, dass Frauen mit hohem Lycopin-Gehalt ein fünffach niedrigeres Risiko hatten an Gebärmutterkrebs zu erkranken. Dieses Ergebnis hat Dr. Dorgan aus Missouri, USA, in jüngerer Vergangenheit bestätigen können.
- Dr. Maureen Murtaugh von der medizinischen Fakultät der Universität Utah, USA, untersuchte kürzlich 952 Fälle von Rektalkrebs. Sie entdeckte, dass die Kombination von Lycopin und Vitamin E die Gefahr, an Rektalkrebs zu erkranken, um die Hälfte verringert. Die teilnehmenden Frauen waren zwischen 30 und 79. Die Ergebnisse zeigten eine Abhängigkeit von Alter, Östrogenstatus und Ernährungsgewohnheiten. Die Gruppe der älteren Frauen mit wenig Östrogen war dreimal so anfällig für eine Rektalkrebserkrankung wie die Gruppe der jüngeren Frauen mit normalen Östrogenspiegeln. Gerade älteren Frauen wird daher für die Rektalkrebsprävention empfohlen, auf eine ausreichende Lycopin- und Vitamin E-Versorgung zu achten.
Wissenschaftliche Quellen zum Thema Lycopin
1) Lycopene and Myocardial Infarction Risk in the EURAMIC Study
von L. Kohlmeier und Mitarbeitern
Amer Journal of Epidmiology, 1997, Seiten 146, 618-682
2) Role of lycopene as antioxidant carotenoid in the prevention of chronic disease: A review
von A V Rao et al
Nutrition Research 1999, 19305-323
3) Uptake of lycopene and its geometric isomers is greater from heat-processed than unprocessed tomato juice in humans
von W. Stahl und H. Sies
J. Nutrition, 1992, 122 2161-2166
4) Carotenoids protect against cell membrane damage by the nitrogen dioxide radical
von F. Boehm, J.H. Tinkler und T.G. Truscott
Nature Med. 1995, 1, 98-99
5) Carotenoids, alpha-tocopherols, and retinol in plasma and breast cancer risk in N. Sweden
von K.Hulton und Mitarbeitern
Cancer Causes Control, 2001, 12, 529-37
6) Plasma lycopene, other carotenoids, and retinol and the risk of cardiovascular diseases in women
von H.D. Sesso und Mitarbeitern
Amer. J. Clinical Nutrition, 2004, 79, 47-53
7) Antioxidants, carotenoids and rsik of rectal cancer
von Maureen A. Murtaugh und Mitarbeiter
Amer J. Epidiemiol, 2004, 159, 32-41
8) Independent and interactive association of blood antioxidants and oxidative damage in eldery people
von C. Laheras und Mitarbeitern
Free Radical Research, 2002, 36, 875-882
Aktuelle wissenschaftliche Studien
1: J Nutr. 2008 Aug;138(8):1432-6.
Lycopene absorption in human intestinal cells and in mice involves scavenger receptor class B type I but not niemann-pick C1-like 1.
Moussa M, Landrier JF, Reboul E, Ghiringhelli O, Coméra C, Collet X, Fröhlich K, Böhm V, Borel P.
Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, UMR1260 Nutriments Lipidiques et Prévention des Maladies Métaboliques, F-13385 Marseille, France.
Cholesterol membrane transporters scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) and (cluster determinant 36) are involved in intestinal uptake of lutein and beta-carotene, 2 of the 3 main carotenoids of the human diet. The aim of this work was therefore to determine whether SR-BI and NPC1L1 (Niemann-Pick C1-like 1), another cholesterol transporter, are implicated in absorption of lycopene, the 3rd main carotenoid of the human diet. Anti-human SR-BI antibody and block lipid transport 1 (BLT1) (a chemical inhibitor of lipid transport by SR-BI) impaired up to 60% (all-E) and (5Z)-lycopene uptake (P < 0.05) by Caco-2 cell monolayers, which were used as a model of human intestinal epithelium. The involvement of SR-BI in lycopene absorption in vivo was then verified by comparing plasma lycopene concentrations in wild-type and SR-BI transgenic mice that were fed a diet enriched with 0.25 g/kg (all-E)-lycopene for 1 mo. Plasma lycopene concentrations were approximately 10-fold higher (P < 0.001) in mice overexpressing SR-BI in the intestine than in wild-type mice, confirming the involvement of SR-BI in lycopene absorption. Further experiments showed that (all-E)-lycopene did not affect SR-BI mRNA levels in Caco-2 cells or mouse intestine. In contrast to SR-BI, neither anti-human NPC1L1 antibody nor ezetimibe, used as inhibitors of lycopene uptake via NPC1L1, significantly impaired (all-E) or (5Z)-lycopene uptake by Caco-2 monolayers. Thus, the present data show that lycopene absorption is, at least in part, mediated by SR-BI but not by NPC1L1.
PMID: 18641187 [PubMed - in process]
2: Transgenic Res. 2008 Aug;17(4):573-85. Epub 2007 Sep 13.
Related Articles, Links
Enhancing the carotenoid content of Brassica napus seeds by downregulating lycopene epsilon cyclase.
Yu B, Lydiate DJ, Young LW, Schäfer UA, Hannoufa A.
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Saskatoon Research Centre, 107 Science Place, Saskatoon, SK, Canada, S7N 0X2.
The accumulation of carotenoids in higher plants is regulated by the environment, tissue type and developmental stage. In Brassica napus leaves, beta-carotene and lutein were the main carotenoids present while petals primarily accumulated lutein and violaxanthin. Carotenoid accumulation in seeds was developmentally regulated with the highest levels detected at 35-40 days post anthesis. The carotenoid biosynthesis pathway branches after the formation of lycopene. One branch forms carotenoids with two beta rings such as beta-carotene, zeaxanthin and violaxanthin, while the other introduces both beta- and epsilon-rings in lycopene to form alpha-carotene and lutein. By reducing the expression of lycopene epsilon-cyclase (epsilon-CYC) using RNAi, we investigated altering carotenoid accumulation in seeds of B. napus. Transgenic seeds expressing this construct had increased levels of beta-carotene, zeaxanthin, violaxanthin and, unexpectedly, lutein. The higher total carotenoid content resulting from reduction of epsilon-CYC expression in seeds suggests that this gene is a rate-limiting step in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway. epsilon-CYC activity and carotenoid production may also be related to fatty acid biosynthesis in seeds as transgenic seeds showed an overall decrease in total fatty acid content and minor changes in the proportions of various fatty acids.
PMID: 17851775 [PubMed - in process]
3: J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Jul 9. [Epub ahead of print]
Related Articles, Links
Susceptibility of the Tomato Mutant High Pigment-2(dg) (hp-2(dg)) to Orobanche spp. Infection.
López-Ráez JA, Charnikhova T, Mulder P, Kohlen W, Bino R, Levin I, Bouwmeester H.
Plant Research International, P.O. Box 16, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands, Laboratory for Plant Physiology, Wageningen University, Arboretumlaan 4, 6703 BD Wageningen, The Netherlands, RIKILT, Institute of Food Safety, Bornsesteeg 45, 6708 PD Wageningen, The Netherlands, and Institute of Plant Sciences, The Volcani Center, P.O. Box 6, 50250 Bet Dagan, Israel firstname.lastname@example.org.
The consumption of natural products with potential health benefits has been continuously growing, and enhanced pigmentation is of major economic importance in fruits and vegetables. The tomato hp-2 ( dg ) is an important mutant line that has been introgressed into commercial tomato cultivars marketed as lycopene rich tomatoes (LRT) because of their enhanced fruit pigmentation, attributed to higher levels of carotenoids, including lycopene. Strigolactones are signaling compounds that mediate host finding in root parasitic plants and are biosynthetically derived from carotenoids. Considering the high carotenoid content of the hp-2 ( dg ) mutant, we studied its susceptibility to the root parasite Orobanche. In a field experiment, the average number of Orobanche aegyptiaca plants growing on hp-2 ( dg ) was surprisingly significantly reduced compared with its isogenic wild-type counterpart. In vitro assays and LC-MS/MS analysis showed that this reduction was associated with a lower production of strigolactones, which apparently renders the high-carotenoid hp-2 ( dg ) mutant less susceptible to Orobanche.
PMID: 18611030 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
4: Anal Biochem. 2008 Jul 4. [Epub ahead of print]
Related Articles, Links
Development of a high-performance liquid chromatography-based assay for carotenoids in human red blood cells: Application to clinical studies.
Nakagawa K, Kiko T, Hatade K, Asai A, Kimura F, Sookwong P, Tsuduki T, Arai H, Miyazawa T.
Food and Biodynamic Chemistry Laboratory, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 981-8555, Japan.
Peroxidized phospholipid-mediated cytotoxicity is involved in the pathophysiology of many diseases; for example, there is an abnormal increase of phospholipid hydroperoxides in red blood cells (RBCs) of dementia patients. Dietary carotenoids have gained attention as potent inhibitors of RBC phospholipid hydroperoxidation, thereby making them plausible candidates for preventing disease. However, the occurrence of carotenoids in human RBCs is still unclear. This is in contradistinction to plasma carotenoids, which have been investigated thoroughly for analytical methods as well as biological significance. In this study, we developed a method to analyze RBC carotenoids using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with ultraviolet (UV) diode array detection (DAD) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) mass spectrometry (MS). Under optimized conditions that included extraction, separation, and detection procedures, six carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and lycopene) were separated, detected by DAD, and concurrently identified based on APCI/MS and UV spectra profiles when an extract from human RBCs was subjected to HPLC-DAD-APCI/MS. The amounts of carotenoids varied markedly (1.3-70.2nmol/L packed cells), and polar oxygenated carotenoids (xanthophylls) were predominant in RBCs. The HPLC-DAD-APCI/MS method would be a useful tool for clinical studies for evaluating the bioavailability of RBC carotenoids.
PMID: 18638443 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
5: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2008 Jul;79(5):793-802. Epub 2008 Apr 24.
Related Articles, Links
Conversion of the lycopene monocyclase of Myxococcus xanthus into a bicyclase.
Iniesta AA, Cervantes M, Murillo FJ.
Departamento de Genética y Microbiología, Facultad de Biología, Universidad de Murcia, Murcia, Spain, email@example.com.
Depending on the cyclized hydrocarbon backbone ends, carotenoids can be acyclic, monocyclic, or bicyclic. Lycopene cyclases are the enzymes responsible for catalyzing the formation of cyclic carotenoids from acyclic lycopene. Myxococcus xanthus is a bacterium that accumulates monocyclic carotenoids such as a glycoside ester of myxobacton. We show here that this bacterium possesses a cyclase belonging to the group of the heterodimeric cyclases CrtYc and CrtYd. These two individual proteins are encoded by crtYc and crtYd, which are located in the carotenogenic carA operon of the carB-carA gene cluster, and the presence of both is essential for the cyclization of lycopene. CrtYc and CrtYd from M. xanthus form a heterodimeric cyclase with beta-monocyclic activity, which converts lycopene into monocyclic gamma-carotene, but not into bicyclic beta-carotene like most beta-cyclases. This is an unusual case where two different proteins constitute a lycopene cyclase enzyme with monocyclic activity. We were able to convert this lycopene monocyclase into a lycopene bicyclase enzyme producing beta-carotene, by fusing both proteins with an extra transmembrane domain. The chimeric protein appears to allow a proper membranal disposition of both CrtYc and CrtYd, to perform two cyclization reactions, while a hybrid without the extra transmembrane helix performs only one cyclization.
PMID: 18437372 [PubMed - in process]
6: Cancer Causes Control. 2008 Jul 1. [Epub ahead of print]
Related Articles, Links
Dietary intake of carotenoids and retinol and endometrial cancer risk in an Italian case-control study.
Pelucchi C, Dal Maso L, Montella M, Parpinel M, Negri E, Talamini R, Giudice A, Franceschi S, La Vecchia C.
Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche "Mario Negri", Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156, Milan, Italy, firstname.lastname@example.org.
OBJECTIVES: To provide information on the relation between intake of carotenoids and retinol and endometrial cancer, since available data are inconsistent. Further, carotenoids other than beta-carotene have been rarely investigated. METHODS: We conducted a multi-centric case-control study in various areas of Italy between 1992 and 2006 on 454 women with incident, histologically confirmed endometrial cancer and 908 controls admitted to the same network of hospitals of cases for acute, non-neoplastic conditions. Intake of carotenoids and retinol was computed from a validated and reproducible food frequency questionnaire. We adjusted for selected covariates, including energy intake, and calculated multivariate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of intake, the ORs of endometrial cancer were 0.69 (95% CI, 0.48-0.99) for beta-carotene, 0.65 (95% CI, 0.45-0.94) for beta-cryptoxanthin, and 0.59 (95% CI, 0.41-0.85) for lutein plus zeaxanthin intake. No association emerged with retinol (OR = 1.31, 95% CI, 0.94-1.84), alpha-carotene (OR = 0.94, 95% CI, 0.66-1.34), and lycopene (OR = 0.95, 95% CI, 0.68-1.34). CONCLUSIONS: Our results support a favorable role of selected dietary carotenoids on endometrial cancer risk.
PMID: 18592384 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
7: J Nutr. 2008 Jul;138(7):1329-35.
Related Articles, Links
High dose lycopene supplementation increases hepatic cytochrome P4502E1 protein and inflammation in alcohol-fed rats.
Veeramachaneni S, Ausman LM, Choi SW, Russell RM, Wang XD.
Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111, USA.
Recent in vitro evidence suggests that the antioxidant lycopene can prevent alcohol-induced oxidative stress and inflammation. However, knowledge of possible interactions in vivo between escalating doses of lycopene and chronic alcohol ingestion are lacking. In this study, we investigated potential interactions between alcohol ingestion and lycopene supplementation and their effect on hepatic lycopene concentration, cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) induction, and inflammation. Fischer 344 rats (6 groups, n = 10 per group) were fed either a liquid ethanol Lieber-DeCarli diet or a control diet (isocaloric maltodextrin substituted for ethanol) with or without lycopene supplementation at 2 doses (1.1 or 3.3 mg x kg body weight(-1) x d(-1)) for 11 wk. Plasma and hepatic concentrations of lycopene isomers were assessed by HPLC analysis. We examined expressions of hepatic CYP2E1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and the incidence of hepatic inflammatory foci. Both plasma and hepatic lycopene concentrations were greater in alcohol-fed rats than in control rats supplemented with identical doses of lycopene. In contrast, alcohol-fed rats had a lower percentage of lycopene cis isomers in the plasma and the liver compared with control rats fed the same dose of lycopene. Notably, lycopene supplementation at the higher dose significantly induced hepatic CYP2E1 protein, TNFalpha mRNA, and the incidence of inflammatory foci in the alcohol-fed rats but not in the control rats. These data indicate an interaction between chronic alcohol ingestion and lycopene supplementation and suggest a need for caution among individuals consuming high amounts of both alcohol and lycopene.
PMID: 18567756 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
8: Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2008 Jun 29. [Epub ahead of print]
Related Articles, Links
Micellarisation of Carotenoids from Raw and Cooked Vegetables.
Ryan L, O'Connell O, O'Sullivan L, Aherne SA, O'Brien NM.
Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University College Cork, Cork, Republic of Ireland.
The efficiency of carotenoid micellarisation from plant foods can be used as an effective tool for the initial screening of carotenoid bioavailability. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were to assess the effects of cooking on the micellarisation of beta-carotene, lycopene, beta-cryptoxanthin and lutein from courgette (zucchini), red pepper and tomato; and, to a minor extent, investigate uptake of lutein by Caco-2 cells from micellar fractions obtained from raw and cooked courgettes. Both raw and cooked vegetables were subjected to an in vitro digestion procedure. beta-Carotene levels were significantly decreased in the digesta from each vegetable after boiling, grilling, microwave-cooking, or steaming, however all of the cooking methods enhanced beta-carotene transfer to micelles. Carotenoid micellarisation ranged from 1.7% to 100% depending on the food, carotenoid, and the cooking method tested. Grilling and microwave-cooking were generally the most detrimental on the transfer of xanthophyll carotenoids, namely beta-cryptoxanthin, to the micelles. Caco-2 cells absorbed greater amounts of lutein from the micelles of microwave-cooked courgettes than those that were raw, boiled, grilled, or steamed. Depending on the cooking methods used, carotenoid retention as well as micellarisation varied for each carotenoid among the different vegetables and different carotenoids present in each particular food.
PMID: 18587647 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
9: Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2008 Jun 26:1-7. [Epub ahead of print]
Related Articles, Links
Extraction of lycopene from tomato sauce with mushrooms (Agaricus brasiliensis), determined by high-performance liquid chromatography.
Schuler Monteiro C, Miguel OG, Maria Eugenia B, Teixeira Padilha Da Silva Penteado P, Maria Chaves Haracemiv S.
Program in Food Technology, Technology Sector, Parana, Brazil.
Lycopene belongs to the subgroup of non-oxygenated carotenoids with antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties that are comparatively more powerful than the majority of plasma carotenoids. When foodstuffs containing lycopene are processed, the cell wall breaks down during the thermal process-thus enabling the extraction of lycopene from chromoplasts, improving their bioavailability. Edible mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis stands out given its medicinal properties and antioxidant potential when used to treat heart diseases and to prevent cancer. Given the interest in lycopene-rich foods, the purpose of the present study was to determine the lycopene present in different types of tomato sauce with A. brasiliensis and/or its extract by high-performance liquid chromatography. The type of solvent (dichloromethane, hexane and ethanol) to remove water from the tomato sauce was tested before the extraction of carotenoids. Lycopene determination in tomato sauces, in tomatoes and in the A. brasiliensis extract was carried out via high-performance liquid chromatography. Findings show that when tomato sauce and raw materials underwent heat treatment, the type of treatment did not interfere with carotenoid and lycopene bioavailability-indicating that those sauces have a significant concentration of carotenoids and, in particular, their content in the lycopene proportion compared with total carotenoids.
PMID: 18608539 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
10: J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Jun 25;56(12):4482-90. Epub 2008 May 22.
Related Articles, Links
Lycopene production using Blakeslea trispora in the presence of 2-methyl imidazole: yield, selectivity, and safety aspects.
Pegklidou K, Mantzouridou F, Tsimidou MZ.
Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Technology, School of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece.
The potential role of 2-methyl imidazole in improving lycopene production by Blakeslea trispora with regards to yield, selectivity, and safety aspects was investigated in batch culture. Optimization of the bioprocess conditions in terms of (a) (+) and (-) strain ratio in the inoculum, (b) initial crude soybean oil (CSO) addition level, and (c) the amount of 2-methyl imidazole was based on response surface methodology to achieve maximum lycopene production. The dependence of growth kinetics, lycopene yield, and selectivity of the bioprocess on the above factors was clear. 2-Methyl imidazole at 50 mg/L was found equally active in terms of lycopene cyclase inhibition with that at 200 or 100 mg/L; in all cases, lycopene accounted for 94% of the total carotenoids. The highest yield was observed at a 50 mg/L level of addition (24 mg/g of biomass dry weight,) in a substrate supplemented with CSO (48 g/L of culture medium) and inoculated with 1(+)/7(-) strain ratio.
PMID: 18494492 [PubMed - in process]
111-130 | 131-150 | 151-170 | 171-200